Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868–1928) is Scotland's most celebrated architect and designer of the 20th century. His work, alongside that of his wife Margaret Macdonald, was influential to - and influenced by - European design movements such as Art Nouveau, Secessionism, the Vienne Werkstatte and the Glasgow Style. Along with the Industrial Revolution, Asian style and emerging modernist ideas also influenced Mackintosh's designs.
Mackintosh achieved his international reputation in the 1890s as a designer of furniture and other interior decorative elements. Perhaps his most influential design was for the Glasgow School of Art (1896–1909), considered the first original example of Art Nouveau architecture in Great Britain. Other chief architectural and interior design projects by Mackintosh are the Hill House, Helensburgh (1902); the Willow Tea Rooms, Glasgow (1904); and Scotland Street School, Glasgow (1904–06).